Leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, which begins in the bone marrow. While sepsis is a strong immune response that paves the way for life inside the body, resulting from a strong infection in a vital organ of the body. If left untreated, septicemia rapidly progresses to septicemia.
Is inflammation of the blood is leukemia
Leukemia is fundamentally different from leukemia, and their symptoms and treatment methods are very different.
What is leukemia?
Leukemia occurs in two ways: the type of white blood cell affected - lymphoid or myeloid. And how quickly the disease develops and exacerbates. Acute leukemia appears suddenly and grows rapidly, while chronic leukemia appears gradually and develops slowly over months to years. There are four types of leukemia. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). People with leukemia have a 63% chance of surviving at least five years.
Symptoms of Leukemia
Many people with leukemia do not have symptoms. Symptoms are mild at the beginning of the disease and then become more and more severe.
The main symptoms include:
fatigue or anemia (pale skin, weakness, shortness of breath)
recurrent infections (oral ulcers, boils, sweating, inflamed scrapes and wounds, frequent urination, cough, sore throat, fever).
Increased bruising and bleeding.
Other less common symptoms include:
Enlarged lymph nodes.
Swelling of the spleen, accompanied by severe pain.
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Causes of leukemia
The cause of acute leukemia is unknown, but factors that put some people at greater risk are:
Exposure to intense radiation.
Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene.
Viruses such as the human T-cell leukemia virus.
Most people with CML have an abnormal chromosome called the Philadelphia chromosome. It has also been linked to exposure to high levels of radiation.
If your doctor suspects that you may have a type of leukemia, you will undergo one or more of the following tests to help diagnose and determine the type of leukemia:
The initial blood test will show whether leukemia cells are present in your blood or if the levels of blood cells are different from what would be expected in a healthy person.
bone marrow biopsy
A small amount of bone marrow is removed from the hip bone (pelvic bone) using a long needle. Since the procedure can be uncomfortable and even painful, a local anesthetic will be used to numb the area and you may be given some painkillers. It is common for children to have general anesthesia.
Chest X-ray A chest X-ray
is done to check the heart and lungs, and to see if there are enlarged lymph nodes in the chest.
. This test shows whether any leukemia cells have moved into the fluid around the spine. The fluid is removed with a thin needle from the space between the bones in the lower back. This takes a few minutes, but because it can be uncomfortable, your doctor will use a local anesthetic to numb the area.
After diagnosing leukemia
After a leukemia diagnosis, it's normal to experience a range of emotions such as anxiety, distress, uncertainty, sadness and confusion. At the same time treatment decisions must be made. Your doctor should discuss the various treatment options with you, including possible outcomes, time frames, potential side effects, and risks and benefits. It's up to you how involved you are in making decisions about your treatment, so get as much information as you need.
treatment Treatment depends on the type of leukemia. Acute leukemia develops rapidly and needs urgent treatment, usually within 24 hours of diagnosis.
A chest X-ray, CT scan, and lumbar puncture determine whether the leukemia has spread. Cytogenetic analysis can also be used to look for chromosomal changes. There is no standard classification system for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient is classified as untreated, benign or malignant.
Staging of chronic lymphocytic leukemia usually uses the Binet system. There are three stages :
Stage A - a large number of white blood cells but fewer than three enlarged areas of lymphatic tissue
Stage B - an elevated white blood cell count and three or more enlarged areas of lymph tissue
Stage C - a large number of white blood cells with a low number Red blood cells and/or platelets and an enlarged spleen or lymph nodes.
Common treatment options are:
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia:
Transplantation of blood stem cells and bone marrow.
Radiation therapy to the head.
Acute myeloid leukemia:
blood stem cell transplantation, and bone marrow
radiotherapy to the head.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia:
Chemotherapy (chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation is being tested in clinical trials).
Chronic myeloid leukemia:
tyrosine kinase inhibitor
therapy Intensive chemotherapy combined with stem cell transplantation
Infusion of donor lymphocytes
In some cases of leukemia, your medical team may talk to you about palliative care. Palliative care aims to reduce the symptoms of leukemia and thus relieve your pain and fatigue. In addition to slowing the spread of leukemia, palliative treatment can relieve pain and help manage other symptoms. Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments.
Side Effects of Treatment
Treatment for leukemia and even cancer itself can cause side effects. The types and severity of any side effects you may experience depend on the type of treatment you have and may vary from person to person. Chemotherapy drugs affect cancer cells, but they also affect rapidly dividing healthy cells. This can cause side effects such as fatigue, hair loss, and nausea. Side effects vary depending on the medications prescribed but most are temporary and there are ways to reduce or prevent them.
Here are some of the side effects you may experience.
Heavy bleeding or bruising
Chemotherapy can lower the number of platelets in your blood (thrombocytopenia), which means you'll bruise and bleed more easily. While the platelets are low, women who are menstruating will be given medications to stop their period. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a platelet transfusion.
risk of infection
The combination of chemotherapy and leukemia drugs lowers levels of white blood cells. This is called neutropenia and can increase your risk of developing an infection such as the common cold or infected wounds.
The level of red blood cells may drop. This is called anemia and can make you feel short of breath and tired. This can be treated with blood transfusions, but some people may feel tired for weeks or months after cancer treatment. Exercise can help reduce fatigue and improve mood.
Feeling sick or vomiting
Chemotherapy can make you feel sick or even make you vomit. Not everyone will feel sick during and after treatment, but often the best way to control nausea is to prevent it from developing. Anti-nausea (anti-emetics) medications help most people, although it may take time to find the right medication.
Hair loss is a common side effect of chemotherapy and can also be a side effect of radiotherapy. This is due to the fact that any treatment that stimulates the growth of cancer cells can also affect other fast-growing cells such as hair roots. Talk to your doctor before starting treatment, about the possibility of hair loss and the level you can expect.
You may not have all or any of the side effects listed above and there are other side effects you may experience such as changes in bowel habits, mouth problems, effects on nerves and muscles (peripheral neuropathy), or changes in thinking and memory. It is important to talk to your health care team about any changes you experience during and after treatment.
Depending on your treatment, your treatment team may consist of a number of different health professionals, such as:
GP (general practitioner) - takes care of your general health and works with your specialists to coordinate treatment.
Hematologist- a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood and lymphatic system.
Radiation oncology specialists - prescribe and coordinate treatment.
Nurses: They provide a helping hand in the treatment and provide the patient with information and support during the treatment phase.
Cancer Care Coordinators - Coordinate your care, coordinate with the multidisciplinary team and support you and your family throughout your treatment.
Other allied health professionals - eg, social workers, pharmacists, counsellors. .
The doctor cannot predict the exact course of the disease, because it depends on the individual circumstances of each person. However, your doctor may give you a diagnosis and possible outcome based on your type of leukemia, test results and tumor growth rate, as well as your age, fitness and medical history. For most children and many adults who reach remission, leukemia can be treated with peripheral blood stem cells or a bone marrow transplant and chemotherapy.